Thursday, 30 March 2017


Today we revised symmetry. Something is symmetrical when it is the same on both sides. A shape has symmetry if a central dividing line (a mirror line) can be drawn on it, to show that both sides of the shape are exactly the same. We created snowflakes with many lines of symmetry and also rotational symmetry.

Beach Safety

The Year 6 students went to Piha Beach to learn all about safety at the beach.

Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Taonga - Where I came from

For our inquiry into Taonga we described where we came from. Read Charlotte and Sativa's fantastic descriptions of where they came from.

Where I Came From by Charlotte

Taonga is a treasure or prized item in Maori culture. These can be possessions such as medals, furniture, recipes and trophies. They can also be people, beliefs, customs and traditions passed down through the generations. Often taonga can have an influence on who we are today.

My Great great grandad migrated from the UK to New Zealand and my Great great Grandma came from the Pacific islands to New Zealand. My Great great Grandad and Great great grandma decided to migrate to New Zealand so that they could start a new life and decided to get married and have children.

One of my family taonga is my Great Grandad on my Mum’s side’s medals. Early Last year My Great Grandad was given the French Legion of Honor medal. He was born in London and at the age of 18 he was called up for service in the royal navy. After attending a radio college, he was assigned to HMS Apollo, a minelaying cruiser, in early 1944. The minelayer attended the D-Day landings. The ship was towed back to Britain for repairs after running aground, before carrying out further operations in Norway and Russia. He then moved to New Zealand in 1947 and returned to his job as an assistant in a chemical laboratory.

My Great Grandad’s medals are a taonga  to me because it influences me to be a hard worker and make sure to get the job done properly. As a result of my hard work I can receive good feedback. Like how my Great Grandad worked hard in the war and the result of that is he got his medals. In the future I think my taonga will shape me to be a better person and persevere if I have a hard time with something because I will remember how my Great Grandad fought in the war.

Where I came from by Sativa

Taonga is a treasure or prized item in Maori culture. These can be possessions such as medals, furniture, recipes and trophies. They can also be people, beliefs, customs and traditions passed down through the generations. Often taonga can have an influence on who we are today.

My family originates in Aotearoa. The iwi that I come from is Te Rarawa. Te Rarawa is a Māori iwi of Northland, New Zealand. The iwi is one of the six Muriwhenua iwi of the far north of the North Island. In my Whanau we have 5 generations but have 4 alive. My great- nana has over 22 grand-children and my mum is the eldest. My mum is only is 26. Me and my brother are the start of the 4th generation.

My speaking Te Reo is a taonga to me and my whanau. In my family my Mum, Dad, Nana, Great-nana, Great-papa, Great great nana, Great great papa and  Auntys and Uncle’s all speak Maori. Speaking Maori is special to me because it is our culture and it shows people who we are! I believe that it doesn't  matter if you are good or bad at speaking Maori what matters is that you tried. Everyday at school I greet my teacher in Maori.

In the future I will teach my whanau how to speak Maori and tell the legends and myths to them. For example: Maui and the sun, Tane and the stars and the Taniwha. Something else I would do is teach them all the songs, dances and things I have learnt from my Great nana and nana. I really hope they pass them down to their children!

Powhiri for a Prince

After reading 'Powhiri for a Prince' by Ariana Tikao we evaluated the claim that 'royal visits are not important.

During the 1920s Prince Edward visited Rotorua and Lyttelton. The Maori people spent lots of time practising poi, haka and pukanas in preparation for his visit, they also spent money on new clothes and transportation. However was all this effort necessary, are royal visits important?

Reason 1 - Guardians of the Galaxy
A reason why many people believe that royal visits are not important is practising items for a visit may take away from more important issues. During the 1920 visit there was a breakout of the influenza. The Maori people had to take care of the influenza victims rather than practise poi, pukanas, a waiata and a haka.

Reason 2 - Avengers
A further reason that people believe royal visits are not important is because they take lots of time to prepare for and they are also very expensive. The Maori people during the 1920 visit spent lots on new clothes, such as dresses and to pay for transportation.

Reason 3 - X-Men
A reason why people may disagree and believe royal visits are important is that people are proud to meet royalty. Evidence shows that during the visit people’s faces lit up with pride.

Reason 4 - Justice League
Another reason why royal visits are important is that they can lift people’s spirits. During the visit the Maori people enjoyed the distraction from the previous few years, such as the war and the influenza outbreak. After such events it is good for communities to come together and share a common goal.

Conclusion - Justice League
In conclusion, we think that royal visits aren’t important because as stated above, people spend valuable time, money and effort to welcome royalty to their country. You need to spend money on new clothes and transport, and time on practicing your welcome.  Overall, 28 / 28 (100%) people in our class agree that royal visits are not important.

We believe our evaluation is extended abstract because we provided evidence, judged overall support for reasons and objections and made an overall evaluation of the claim

Monday, 27 March 2017

Swimming Sports 2017

Last week we had our Swimming Sports. Room 3 did really well competing in a range of events. Thanks to all those who braved the elements to come and support us.

Year 5 Swimming Safety

The Year 5 students attended Mount Albert pools to participate in a water safety course.

Sunday, 19 March 2017

Saving the Chinese Shar-Pei - Evaluation

After reading 'Saving the Chinese Shar Pei' by Pauline Kidd the Justice League evaluated one of the decisions the Chinese government made in the 1950's which was that "Dogs are luxury items and people should be banned from having them".

During the 1950’s, the new communist government of China decided that everyone was to work for the good of the country and not for personal wealth. The government saw dogs as luxury items and banned people from owning and keeping them. Were the Chinese government correct in their opinion?

Reason for - Shreyas
The communist government of China thought of dogs as luxury items.  A reason they thought this is that dogs cost a lot of money to keep. Shar-Pei need to be fed 2 - 3 times a day on wet and dry food and Shar-Pei are particularly prone to a skin condition which would require medication. The government believed that money spent on dogs would have been better used on the people of China.

Reason against - Charlotte
It is known by many people that dogs can be very useful. It is believed that in ancient China the Shar-Pei helped peasants to herd their stocks. Compared to other breeds of dogs the Shar-pei are very strong and have small eyes and small ears which makes them especially useful as hunting dogs as they would not get injured.

Reason for - Joshua
The government believed that looking after and walking a dog would take away from working time, therefore causing people to not produce enough food to sustain their family and others. Keeping a dog was also seen as a distraction from the more important process of work.

Reason against - Alexus
Another perspective is that dogs can be used as warriors in battles because they are strong animals. The Shar-Pei have wrinkles which act as protection, so they don’t get injured when they fight. They also have small eyes and ears which would unlikely get damaged in a fight.
Conclusion - Kristy
In conclusion we think that dogs should not have been banned. Dogs would have helped people to keep fit, and they helped provide food and protection. The reasons for banning dogs are weak as dogs could have been fed leftovers and could help the people work more productively, e.g. herding stock. The reasons against banning dogs are strong because dogs, especially Shar-Pei are great hunting dogs that don’t get hurt easily. Shar-Pei’s would help provide families with food and offer protection during battles. These reasons outweigh the negatives of costing money to feed and taking time to train.

We believe our evaluation is extended abstract as we provided evidence, judged the overall support for reasons and objections and made an overall evaluation of the claim. We believe though that we could have extended ourselves by evaluating other decisions the government may have made and looked at other breeds of dogs.

Thursday, 16 March 2017

Equal Additions

                Thanks to Kristy and Charlotte for explaining the strategy of Equal Additions.

Rounding and Compensating

     Thanks to Kristy and Charlotte for explaining the strategy of Rounding and Compensating.

Wednesday, 15 March 2017

New Zealand Customs Cause and Effect

We continued our inquiry into British migration to New Zealand. Using a cause and effect map we uncovered that we owe the British for rugby, fish and chips and sea side holidays.

New Zealand has many customs and traditions such as playing rugby, cricket and soccer, eating fish and chips and going to the beach during summer and on hot days. Would you believe that these traditions can be traced back to Britain?

New Zealand’s major sporting codes cricket, rugby and soccer have English origins. Rugby originated in England’s public schools, and it was first played in New Zealand by old boys of those schools. A possible outcome of British people bringing rugby and cricket to New Zealand is that New Zealand became Rugby World Champions in 1987, 2011, 2015 and Cricket World Cup finalists 2015.

Research suggests an English diet which consisted of meat, potatoes and cereals, together with bread, cakes and puddings was established by migrants. Fish, in the form of fish and chips, was introduced to New Zealand from northern England. Consequently these days New Zealanders chomp their way through about seven million servings of chips a week, or about 120,000 tonnes a year.

The emergence of New Zealanders’ strong like for seaside holidays and sea bathing followed developments in England, where by mid-Victorian times the middle-class family seaside holiday had become an established tradition. New Zealand adopted the English changing sheds and now enjoy regular trips to the beach and having bach holidays.

Although these traditions and customs are well established in New Zealand we believe the future of them may change due to immigration. One possible outcome of immigration is that New Zealand will play more hockey. Indian immigration is on the rise and as hockey is the national sport of India, this may mean more people will be playing hockey here. The more people that play hockey competitively means there is a better chance of New Zealand becoming World Champions one day. Another tradition that may change is that of eating fish and chips. Lots of immigrants are coming from Asia establishing their own restaurants and takeaway shops, therefore there are more options for dinner than just fish and chips. In our class only 4 people out of 28 ate fish and chips in the last week, while 21 ate Asian food. This shows that the popularity of eating fish and chips may be decreasing.
We believe our cause and effect is extended abstract because we identified several relevant different causes and effects.  We looked at the information in a different way to make a prediction about the future of New Zealand customs and traditions.

Something Fishy Going On!

On Monday we encountered some strange creatures from the deep - an arrow squid, monkfish head and a Japanese gurnard. We were given the option to write a transactional text or a poetic text. Enjoy some examples of each.

Here are Tvisha's and Brianna's arguments (Transactional) Which side do you belong on?

Fish in Room 3 by Tvisha

Spotted gurnard, monkfish and arrow squid are all commonly found in the sea waters surrounding New Zealand and Australia. On Monday however these sea creatures found their way into our classroom for a writing experience. The children in Room 3 had very different reactions to the fish, many people wondered whether bringing in the fish was a good idea? 

I believe strongly that bringing in the fish was a good idea, firstly the fish provided an interesting experience to write about rather than the usual ‘what we did in the holidays’. However some people (like Brianna, Moksha and Siya) may disagree and say this was a bad idea because of the smell that the fish left behind in the classroom, although it’s true there was a bad smell, opening the windows and using air freshener soon got rid of the smell.

Moksha and Siya may argue that we could learn about the anatomy of a fish or a squid on youtube instead of in real life since it is gross looking at in front of us rather than on the screen. However I believe it is important to experience things in real life and not just through screens. 

As the above evidence shows, it was a fabulous idea to bring fish into the classroom. In the future I recommend that Mr Bainbridge should definitely bring in more dead animals for us to cut open and explore for writing.

Fish in Room 3 by Brianna.

Spotted gurnard, monkfish and arrow squid are all commonly found in the sea waters surrounding New Zealand and Australia - they should however never be found in a primary school classroom. On Monday Mr Bainbridge brought in the above sea creatures for a so called ‘writing experience.

I believe strongly that this was a bad idea. Firstly bringing in a fish made the classroom smell like being in a trash can, and it distracted people from working in the classroom and next door and that’s not only how it can distract people from working, it’s how people are jumping all over the place and screaming. However some people (Mr Bainbridge) may argue that bringing in a fish would help provide an interesting experience for us to write about rather than writing about the weekend or holidays.

Another reason Mr Bainbridge may have thought bringing in the fish was a good idea was that he was trying to teach us how to fillet a fish or prepare a squid. However we could learn those skills from Youtube without any of the mess.

As the above evidence shows it was a bad idea to bring fish into the classroom. In the future I recommend Mr Bainbridge should not bring any dead fish into the classroom. He should instead bring candy and chocolate and let us write about that instead.

Here is an example of a recount by Charlotte (poetic)

“Urgggggh it’s guts are everywhere" Kristy screamed with a disgusted look on her face. Terrified children started running round the classroom like weirdos. The pong of fish made me want to throw up. With a swift strike Mr Bainbridge chopped open the slimy fish and handed the head to Sativa. “Ewww look what Sativa’s doing!”. Peering over I caught a glimpse of Sativa poking her finger inside the monkfish head and pushing out the eye. Holding a GoPro with one hand I reached out and picked up a small sack of fish eggs. I looked down into the monkfish mouth dragging my finger around I felt a sharp row of teeth and quickly pulled my hand away in shock. I looked over in horror to see Mr Bainbridge confidently placing an arrow squid onto the chopping board. “No not another one” squealed Alexus, looking if she was about to puke.

Mr Bainbridge grabbed the Gurnard and dropped it onto the chopping board. The fish had razor sharp fins sticking out of it. The gurnard had dark brown chocolate spots which sat on top of murky green skin. Quickly Mr Bainbridge held up the long thin sharp knife and brought it back down slitting the sides of the fish. Once again he handed it to Sativa to peel off the rest of the spotty skin. Leaning over the crowds of people I leaned out and poked the fish eye Sativa popped out. The eye was clear and hard and was shaped like a sphere.

Once the squealing stopped we started to pack up, placing the corpse into tip top containers. I rushed to the bathroom and drenched my hands in soap. Walking into the the classroom I gave the hand sanitiser a workout.  Any remains of what had just happened were covered up with a thick layer of  ‘aqua mist ’. Would you have liked to spend your Monday morning playing ‘operation’ with dead fish?

Recount by Joshua (poetic)

“Squelch!” Dark red liquid splattered all over the chopping board. A beheaded body lay limp, blood flooding out. A sharp, shiny blade slid through the belly. Intestines tumbled out. In Room 3, Mr Bainbridge brought in a monkfish head, a gurnard and an arrow squid. We were doing this for ‘Writing’ and so far, it didn’t look like what it said on the board.

The table was soon painted red like a fire hydrant with the gurnard’s blood. The fins of the gurnard opened up like peacock feathers to reveal shimmering colours. The head was sandpaper and the fins knives. Black spots speckled the pinkish skin. Mr Bainbridge showed us the gills and the sharp spikes near it’s head. A big, black eye surrounded with yellow stared out, not seeing anything.

The time had come to bury the deceased. Squid and fish guts were cruelly stuffed into a plastic bag. Blood was wiped off the chopping board and the air was freshened using deodorant. Suyash finally came back into the room after a long time hiding out of the classroom. I mean, who wouldn’t rush out when your teacher is dissecting fish?

And finally a guide to preparing gurnard from Harrison (transactional)

How To fillet A Japanese Gurnard

The Japanese or spotted gurnard is a commercially fished species caught around Australia. The gurnard grows to approximately 50cm and is rich in potassium and calcium. This is how to fillet a gurnard.

What you will need: A cutting knife, a chopping board, an adults help, an apron, a pair of plastic gloves, a pair of tweezers and a Japanese gurnard.

  1. First put the raw fish on the chopping board.
  2. Secondly use a knife to cut off the fish head from the gills and cut the spiky fins from the body, you can tell an adult if  you need any help to cut it.
  3. Next run the knife alongside the spine without cutting into the back bone.
  4. Then you can use a pair of tweezers or fish pliers to take the small bones out.
  5. After that make a small cut at the edge of the fillet and slide the knife in.
  6. Hold the skin and keep the knife at a 45 degree angle and wiggle the skin free from the fillet.
  7. Then repeat the same thing one more time on the other fillet.
  8. When you are done you will have two fillets ready for eating raw or cooked.

Kapok Generalisation

After reading 'Kapok for a Cushion' the X-Men completed accepted the generalisation "It is important to preserve the skills and crafts from the past".

We believe it is important to preserve the skills and crafts of the past. Preserving means to save the skills and crafts from being forgotten by using them still. In the village of Kimi’angatau on the island of Ma’uke in the Cook Islands Moira made a kapok cushion using traditional skills and used traditional crafts such as a weaved basket.

Using the skills to produce traditional crafts teaches young people about the history and culture of their ancestors in a practical way. For example using a tivaevae pattern on the cushion was a way of showing respect and the importance of this pattern in the Cook Island culture.

Another benefit of using traditional skills is that you can transfer the same skills to other tasks. For example the skills used to create the weaved basket could also be used to produce clothes and art.

Using traditional skills and crafts is also a good way to save money. Often homemade crafts are cheaper than buying them from a shop.  Making her own cushion with materials that she found is much cheaper than buying one brand new.

However sometimes it may not be suitable to use traditional crafts. People in the Cook Islands often now use rubber or synthetic cushions, pillows and mattresses due to being allergic to the kapok fibres.

Overall we believe it is important to preserve the skills and crafts from the past because it teaches young people about their history, culture and identity, you learn skills you can use in other ways and it can save you money. In Maori there are other skills and crafts such as the poi, flax weaving, moko and carving. Preserving these skills is just as important to preserving the skills in the Cook Islands. However Maori skills and crafts are under greater threat of being lost because not many people practise these skills anymore and there is a greater number of migrants coming to New Zealand bringing their own skills and crafts. To preserve these traditional Maori skills we suggest all children in New Zealand should be given the opportunity to learn a traditional skill such as making poi, carving or weaving flax.

We believe our generalisation is extended abstract because we supported the generalisation with evidence from the text and our own ideas. We also put our ideas in a new context by discussing Maori crafts and skills and how these can be preserved.

Tuesday, 14 March 2017

Dick Frizzell Inspired Art

In art we completed our Dick Frizzell inspired portraits.

The King of Tonga Vs Queen Elizabeth

The Guardians of the Galaxy compared the birthday celebrations of the King of Tonga and Queen Elizabeth after reading 'The Kings Birthday" by Jill MacGregor.

If you are on holiday in Tonga during July you may see banners, marching bands and colourful balloons to celebrate the King’s birthday. How the king’s birthday is celebrated shares some similarities and differences with how Queen Elizabeth’s birthday is celebrated in England and New Zealand.

National Holiday - Tariq
Both the King and the Queen’s birthday are national holidays in July. The King’s birthday is a holiday because he rules the whole country and his birthday is on the fourth of July. The Queen's birthday is a holiday in England and New Zealand because she is a very famous queen. Her age is ninety and the holiday is on the 5th July.   

Processions - Sheena and Rayan
Both birthdays feature processions, in Tonga you would see marching bands and school children marching down the streets of Nuku'alofa. In England you would see lots of boats along the Thames River in London.

Foods - Boston and Suyash
Both birthdays can be celebrated with food. They would have lots of yummy food in Tonga.
There are lots of different kinds of food in Tonga such as roasted pig, coconut cream, fish, breadfruit, lu sipi in banana leaves. In England they serve small sandwiches, cake and tea. We think the food served during the Queen’s birthday celebrations is better because they serve healthier food.

Clothes - Jacky and Mizuki
Both birthdays can be celebrated with special clothes. If you go to Tonga you would see necklaces of leaves and ta’avola (waist mat). On the other hand in England you would see people wearing clothes adorned with the Union Jack and people wearing crowns and tiaras.

Overall we would prefer to celebrate a monarch’s birthday like they do in England because of the healthier food, we would prefer to see an interesting parade with lots of different boats and wear more comfortable clothes than they do in Tonga.
We believe our comparison is Multistructural because we listed several similarities and comparisons. To be relational or extended abstract we could give reasons why people celebrate the way they do e.g. why people wear necklaces of flowers and wear waist mats. We could also make a prediction about the celebrations in the future such as if the Queen has a 100th birthday celebration.

Monday, 13 March 2017

British Migration Vs Pacific Migration

In Inquiry we compared the migration of two groups that have had a significant impact on New Zealand culture and identity. 

From long ago people have been migrating to Aotearoa, New Zealand. It is believed Maori were the first people to migrate to Aotearoa, New Zealand over a thousand years ago. Throughout the years many different ethnic groups began to arrive on New Zealand shores. Two groups that have had a big impact on New Zealand culture and identity are the British and the Pacific Islanders. The British and Pacific Islanders share many similarities in their history of migrating to Aotearoa, New Zealand. Two time periods that saw large numbers of people arrive were the 1800s for the British and the 1960s for Pacific people.

Arrived by Sea - Watchmen
Both the British and Pacific people arrived to Aotearoa by sea. During the 1800s the British arrived on large sail boats. The journey took over 100 days in cramped conditions, the seas were rough and lots of people came down with illnesses. During the 1960s the Pacific people came off the ‘banana boats’ or the flying boats at Hobsonville. The journey taken by the British was much more difficult than for those in the Pacific. The journey was much longer, the food would have been worse having to be preserved in salt to last the long journey and the chance of disease spreading would have been much greater due to the cramped living conditions.

Different groups of people - Watchmen
Both regions brought with them different groups of people. British migrants were made up of mostly the English and Scottish, with fewer Irish and Welsh. The Pacific Island people were represented by Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands and others. The British would have had an easier time settling into Aotearoa as they would have shared a common language (English) with others within their immigrant group. However there are lots of different languages spoken in the Pacific. Even though you may have come from the same region of the world didn’t mean you were able to communicate with each other.

Skills - X-Force  
Arriving in Aotearoa both migrant groups brought important skills. The British people had pre-industrial skills in agriculture, and were builders, blacksmiths and coopers (a maker or repairer of casks and barrels). The Pacific Islanders women brought domestic skills suited to becoming cleaners and cooks. The Pacific men brought skills to the forestry industry. The skills needed today in Aotearoa are very different from those needed in the 1800s and 1960s, the skills New Zealand needs today are those in business, engineering and information technology.       

Culture - Fantastic Four
Both immigrant groups brought their own languages, foods, drinks and cultural traditions to Aotearoa. The British brought sports such as rugby and cricket and also the public school system. On the other hand the Pacific Islanders brought their religious beliefs to Aotearoa by building churches such as the Pacific Islanders Congregational Church. The British traditions have had longer to take hold in New Zealand and become part of New Zealand culture, for example rugby is the country’s most popular game with the All Black’s being considered the world’s best.

Reasons for migrating - Green Lantern Corps
Both migrant groups had a reason for coming to New Zealand. The British people came for better education, to become free from poverty and a better climate. In Britain the class system was very unfair. This is because in Britain if you were poor you would stay in a lower class, and if you were rich than you were considered a higher class of person. Britain’s climate was cold and wet meaning it was difficult to grow crops and become self sufficient. Pacific people came to New Zealand looking for opportunities to work and to become well educated. Pacific people also came to Aotearoa to be reunited with family and friends. In the Pacific Islands it was very difficult to get into a good school. Pacific people came to New Zealand to get good jobs and earn more income. They also came to join their family and friends that had already arrived.  

Conclusion - Overall both migrant groups have had a significant impact on New Zealand culture and identity. Every year large numbers of British and Pacific Island people continue to arrive in Aotearoa. The reasons for migrating to New Zealand remain much the same as in the past, namely a good education, job opportunities and quality of life. In the future however we believe that the British and Pacific will not be the predominant groups of migrants to New Zealand, but rather it will be people from Asia. People are leaving Asia due to the overpopulation, there being less competition in New Zealand for jobs and less pollution. Future New Zealand will be more culturally diverse and take on more of the traditions of Asia such as the food, religious celebrations and clothes

.We believe our comparison is extended abstract because we found several similarities and differences. We used SOLO language such as however, on the other hand and both. We linked our ideas to modern day New Zealand and looked at the information in a different way to make a prediction about the future.

Kapok Cushion Sequence

After reading 'Kapok for a Cushion' by Jill MacGregor the X-Men sequenced the steps in making a kapok cushion.

In the Cook Islands, people traditionally used ‘kapok’ as a filling for cushions and pillows. Kapok is a natural fibre found in large, woody pods from trees found in plantations. To make a kapok cushion you will need to follow these steps.

First you need to buy or make a cushion cover. You may like to decorate it in a traditional tivaevae leaf pattern to represent your Cook Island culture. Alternatively you may like to use koru or images of a taniwha if you were Maori, images of kangaroos or aboriginal patterns if you are Australian and hibiscus or frangipani images to represent your Pacific Island culture.

Next go to the kapok trees, these are usually found in plantations. Collect the ‘kapok’ fibres from the pods that have fell to the ground. The pods would have opened in the hot sun and spread their fibres across the ground. Use a weaved basket to collect the fibres because a plastic bag is bad for the environment. Plastic takes a long time to decompose and bags fill up landfills. In small island nations it is important to cut down on waste.

After you have collected the fibres spread them out on a mat to dry in the sun because if you don’t the moist fibres in the cushion can begin to smell bad over time. Once the fibres are dry pick out as many seeds as you can.

Finally stuff the fibres into the cushion cover and sew up the cushion. The cushion is now ready to use, however if you have an allergy to kapok you should use foam rubber or synthetic cushions and pillows instead.

We believe our sequence is relational as we have sequenced the steps in order and used because to add more detail to the steps. We used sequence SOLO language such as finally, next, step and first. To be extended abstract we need to look at the sequence in a new way by looking at how cushions are made in other countries, other goods produced in the Cook Islands and how the cushions are produced on a mass scale.